Taste mechanism and sweetener substances

Mecanismo gustativo y sustancias edulcorantes.

Taste is a kind of physiological sensation that taste receptor cells sense taste substances. Among the five basic tastes of sour, sweet, bitter, salty, and fresh, people feel salty the fastest, followed by sweetness, and bitterness. It feels the slowest, but in terms of human sensitivity to taste, bitter tastes are more sensitive than other tastes and are more easily detected. A large number of experimental studies have proved that almost all animals like sweetness, and calves prefer sweetness than adult cattle; adding sweeteners to feed can increase feed intake of young livestock, especially pigs, and improve feed conversion Rate.

Sweet substances mainly include sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, artificially synthesized sweet compounds and sweet proteins. Sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose, etc. Sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, maltitol, and xylitol are often not too sweet. Synthetic sweetening compounds include saccharin, neotame, cyclamate, acesulfame potassium, sucralose, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, etc. Synthetic sweetening compounds tend to have a higher moderation, among which saccharin, neotame, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are currently used more in feed. Saccharin, also called o-sulfobenzimide, is a white crystal or powder, and its sodium salt is water-soluble, which is what we often call sodium saccharin, and its sweetness is about 300-500 times that of sucrose. Fast onset of perception in aqueous solutions, shorter duration, slightly metallic aftertaste and post-bitterness. Neotame has been approved for use in many countries as a sweetener and flavor enhancer.

Neotame is a derivative of aspartame, its sweetness is close to that of aspartame, with pure sweetness, without the bitterness and other unpleasant flavors of other high-efficiency sweeteners, and its sweetness is about 7000- of sucrose. 13000 times. Neotame has a slower onset and longer duration of sweet taste in aqueous solutions. This characteristic can prolong the duration of sweetness when compounding with raw materials such as saccharin sodium, and modify the post-bitterness of saccharin sodium. Using this characteristic, it can also be compounded with hydrophobic organic acids to prolong the flavor of products such as chewing gum, which can improve the bad flavor of rapeseed meal and drugs in feed, and improve the flavor of feed.

In the selection of sweeteners, the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of sweet raw materials should be comprehensively considered. Through the synergy and synergy between the raw materials, the appropriate technology should be adopted to achieve better sweetness and taste.

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